What is communalism? Discuss the reasons for the emergence of communalism during the colonial rule.
Introduction: There are two main religious communities in the Indian subcontinent. One is Hindu and the other is Muslim. Cultural and national unity between the Hindus and Muslims of Bengal was maintained till recently before the acquisition of Indian-British rule. But with the establishment of British rule in India, it was ruined and there was a clear disparity between them. Hindus and Muslims gradually moved away. The enemy begins to think without complementing each other. In this way communal nationalism was born among them. Muslims create Islamic nationalities based on their religion and culture. On the other hand, Hindus also focus on their religious and social life to work for the fulfillment of religious goals in the name of Hindu nationalism, communalism and communalism in general. So the word communalism is used in different ways in different senses. Sectarians believe that all the interests of the followers of their religion are the same and that they are different from other communities. All these people consider religious beliefs as the foundation of society and politics. Moreover, since the communalists believe in communalism, they do not support the unity of the people of the country on the basis of secularism.
Due to the emergence of communalism during the colonial rule and from the beginning of Muslim rule in the subcontinent for several centuries, Hindus and Muslims have been living side by side with the geographical and natural climate and maintaining unity and harmony among themselves. Until then, the religious communalism of Hindus and Muslims has been confined to their own religious activities. But whenever British colonial rule began in India, a wall of division was formed between Hindus and Muslims. Communalism begins. The reasons for the emergence of communalism during the colonial rule of India are discussed below:
The reason for the emergence of communalism during the colonial rule
1. Influence of religious vested interests
Lakes of different professions were living in India. It is normal for people living in this way to have social stigma. All these conflicts were mainly between the privileged class and the disenfranchised class
String With the advent of British rule, all these class conflicts in India became so pronounced that a kind of vested interest introduced religious differences among the people of different professions. The first stage of communalism begins.
2. British conspiracy
The British conspiracy is particularly responsible for creating a communal message in India. With the fall of Nawab Sirajuddaula, the British began to view the Muslim community in India differently. Because
They thought that only Muslims could rise up against the British rule in India. So leaving the Hindus behind, the British continued to help the Hindus. Which paves the way for communalism by dividing Hindus and Muslims.
3. Creation of inequality between Hindus and Muslims
The inequality between Hindus and Muslims during the colonial rule in India fuels communalism. Although the Hindus accepted the education culture and knowledge practice developed by the British in India, the Muslims did not accept it properly. As a result, Hindus are unilaterally advancing in government and office court business. The Muslims were able to survive in all these contests. As a result, they started thinking of Hindus as opponents. Which gives birth to communalism.
4. Muslims have anti-British attitude
Prior to British rule, the whole of India was largely controlled by Muslims. But the British put an end to Muslim rule and established political authority in India. So the Indian Muslims never got a good look at the British. So the Muslims were against the British while the Hindus were on the side of the British. This creates distance between them.
5. Introduction of permanent settlement
The Permanent Settlement introduced by the British Government in 1793 created communalism in India. Because it mainly benefits the Hindu zamindars. On the other hand, the Muslim subjects under the Hindu zamindars
The economic situation is getting worse day by day. This entrenched the notion of Muslims that British rule in India. Has adopted the policy of treating Hindus. That is, there is a significant decline in the status of Hindus and Muslims.
. The conspiracy of the Hindus
Most of the peasants and artisans in India were Muslims. The economic and legal framework during the colonial rule forced the Muslim peasants to resort to the courts and Hindu lawyers and the Muslim artisans to the Hindu merchants. As a result, the condition of the uneducated and backward poor Muslims and artisans is deplorable.
. Different discriminatory policies
In the economic system prevailing during the colonial rule, Hindu moneylenders tied up the entire peasant society, especially the poor Muslim peasants, in the name of loans. It does
Many due to debt Muslims lost their land . Moreover, if the policy of compulsory commercial production was introduced, the farmers of all other communities, including Muslims, would have to rely on Hindu traders in agriculture.
. The British government's negative attitude towards Muslims
The British government has always had a negative attitude towards Muslims. Because they saw that many movements and revolts were organized in India under the leadership of Muslims. Especially after the Great Uprising of 1857, the British government gave a very negative view to the Muslims. Which gives rise to communalism.
9. Religious organizations
During the colonial rule a number of religious organizations were formed. Which creates communalism. For example, in the 18th century, the Hindus of Benares started a movement for the introduction of Hindi language instead of Urdu.
Does. This angered the Muslims. Moreover, in the same year, Nabgapal Mitra formed an organization called "Hindu Mela". Apart from this, some religious organizations of Hindus gained popularity during this time. Which enhances communalism.
10. Development of religious nationalism
The role of some Englishmen in the mid-nineteenth century introduced religious nationalism in Hindu society which influenced politics. Various Hindu poets and writers inspired the Hindus to embrace Hindu nationalism through their writings. They described the Muslim rule in a negative light and praised the British rule. Seeing this nationalism of the Hindus, the Islamic scholars tried to arouse the Muslim nationalism. They wage jihad against Hindus in various ways. Which initiates communalism.
11. Establishment of Congress
With the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1855, communal tensions intensified. Because the Muslims noticed that the Congress was a major Hindu political party. Most of it
Most of the members were Hindus. Moreover, Urdu-Hindi conflict arose in India at that time. In a word, all the decisions of the Congress were anti-Muslim. This angered the Muslims and they themselves formed various Islamic organizations.
12. The influence of the wise
During the British colonial rule, some scholars of both Hindu and Muslim communities emerged in India. These scholars influence the creation of communalism. Raja Rammaehan Roy. Ishwar Chandra Gupta, Rangalal Bandopadhyay and others were Hindu scholars. They awakened the Hindus in different ways. On the other hand, at this time some Muslim scholars like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Syed Amir Ali, Nawab Abdul Latif awakened the Muslims. As a result, both communities took a confrontational stance.
13. Partition of Bengal
The British divided Bengal in 1905 with some advantages to the Muslims. But it was essentially a manifestation of the British policy of dividing and governing. The Hindus could not accept this partition of Bengal with Muslim advantages. So that the Muslims started agitating for the partition of Bengal and the Hindus against the partition of Bengal. Which creates communalism.
14. Establishment of Muslim League
The All India Muslim League was formed on 30 December 1906 in Dhaka. It was a political organization of Muslims and all its members were Muslims. They are programs to protect the interests of Muslims
Accepts. The Hindus were dissatisfied with this. They opposed the Muslim League through the National Congress. As a result, the enmity between Hindus and Muslims took on extreme proportions and became communal.
Conclusion: Finally, the communal problem in the Indian subcontinent is a problem caused by the British. In order to establish colonial rule, the British cleverly pitted Hindus and Muslims against both. As a result, Hindus and Muslims who have been living together for so long have started thinking of each other as enemies. Sectarianism begins. Later, for various reasons, this communalism took on an intense shape. Which ultimately shattered the whole of India. Later, Hindus and Muslims emerged as two everlasting rivals in the world.